Archive for category Cancer in the fire service

Cancer in the fire service

Excerpts from the

After a long legal battle, a judge ruled in favor of Homer Salinas – a Mission, TX firefighter denied workmen’s compensation after he was diagnosed with kidney cancer.

The city’s insurance carrier claimed that his diagnosis was unrelated to his work and refused to cover treatment costs, but Salinas appealed that decision last November and finally got the answer he’d been waiting for. But the fight could continue.

It remains unknown whether or not there will be an appeal on the court’s ruling. 

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Cancer in there Fire Service

Excerpts from

Scientists at the University of Notre Dame will begin an independent study of turnout gear worn by firefighters after initial samples tested positive for fluorine.

Graham Peaslee, a professor of experimental nuclear physics at the University of Notre Dame, and his lab tested fabric swatches taken from unused personal protective gear for the presence of perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs).

“The results were phenomenal — off the scale in parts per million of fluorine in all but one of the samples,” Peaslee said. “Everything was just loaded with fluorine.” Following the initial tests, Peaslee is leading a study of new and used turnout and personal protective gear issued throughout the 2000s, including jackets, pants and undershirts — all of which are either new or have been in service for more than a decade.  

Various forms of PFASs have been linked to prostate, kidney, and testicular cancers, as well as thyroid disease and low birthweight. The chemicals are commonly associated with stain-resistant products and the manufacture of nonstick cookware. In 2017, Peaslee was one of several researchers who uncovered the presence of PFASs in fast-food wrappers.

The chemicals are also a component of aqueous film-forming foams. These foam fire suppressants have been linked to incidents of contaminated drinking water. In Michigan, where a number of communities have traced water contamination to the use of the foam, some fire officials are working to limit its use or to use alternative, PFAS-free formulas when possible. The United States Air Force began phasing out PFAS-based foam for an environmentally safer alternative in 2016, and finished replacing its stock in 2017.

To test for PFASs, Peaslee’s lab uses particle-induced gamma-ray emission spectroscopy, a novel and specialized method he developed as an efficient and cost-effective way to analyze for total fluorine content. For this study, Peaslee and his students plan to test for content and how much — if any — is coming off the fabric with time and use.

“We’re going to measure each piece of gear and look at the difference in fluorine content over time and extensive use, including after the fabric has been washed, and look at how much of the chemical can transfer off the fabric,” he said. “The obvious thing is, if you take the new gear and wash it — do the measurements match the old gear? I can also then take the water from the wash and test the liquid. We can expose swatches of this fabric to heat and light and see if the fluorine content is affected. Will the chemical bonds break down?”

The breakdown of those chemical bonds in textiles and the transfer of PFASs is what concerns Peaslee the most. PFASs don’t degrade easily, and have an especially long half-life, meaning that those chemicals remain in the environment for many years, whether accumulating in the ground or the body.

Though scientists have not yet learned if PFASs can transfer to the human body simply by coming in contact with the skin, Peaslee co-authored a study in 2017 describing a method to track certain PFASs in mouse models. The results of that study suggest certain PFASs, such as short-chain PFAS compounds, can accumulate in various organs such as the brain and stomach.

“If I can see a measurable decrease from our tests, that means the PFAS has gone into the environment,” Peaslee said. “That environment is in the workplace where these firefighters work, and where these firefighters live. That would be a pretty significant finding. I think it’s a study that needs to be done.”

Peaslee’s research on PFASs in turnout gear has been conducted pro bono.

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Cancer in the Fire Service

Excerpts from the International Association of Fire Investigators:

The International Association of Arson Investigators (IAAI) has released a white paper that covers best practices related to health and safety, particularly as it concerns cancer prevention. The paper, which can be found here, was put together by the IAAI Health and Safety Committee after it was re-established in 2016 when it was deemed that health and safety practices and protocols for investigators had not been keeping pace with those of firefighters.

The IAAI says the risks are often overlooked because investigators typically arrive to a scene hours or even days after a fire has been extinguished with less safety preparation and an assumption that because the fire is extinguished, the danger is diminished. However, investigators are often on scene when fires remain active or are still hot, and many develop chronic health issues including respiratory conditions.

The white paper provides detailed information on the types of protections to use in various fire scenarios.

Protection is essential at hot scenes and there are two scenarios described:

  • Fire has been extinguished but overhaul has not yet commenced or is in process.
  • Fire has been extinguished but for less than two hours.

Both of these hot scenes are of greatest danger for fire investigators because of the potential for high levels of gases and particulates. A vetted NIOSH respirator is recommended along with a list of turnout gear and structural firefighter gloves.

A warm scene is when a fire has been extinguished at least two hours prior but less than 72 hours. This is the typical time frame when many investigators find themselves on scene and also remains dangerous due to potential exposure to toxic chemicals. Many of the same protections used in hot scenes apply here.

A cold scene is when a fire has been extinguished for at least 72 hours. While research indicates that particulate and gas hazards are greatly reduced after 72 hours, the disturbing of debris can stir up these hazards. For this reason, respiratory protection is recommended.

Other dangers to investigators include skin exposure to chemicals and contaminants. Research shows that firefighters have a greater incidence of skin cancer due to exposure, and investigators have the same exposure rates. Surveying and properly ventilating a site of gases and vapors will promote better health.

Similar to firefighters, investigators are also urged to properly decontaminate after working at a scene, removing soot-covered clothing and cleaning and wiping down skin that may have been exposed. Clothing or PPE and tools should be placed in sealed containers during transport or cleaned immediately.

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Cancer in the fire service

Excerpts from the

On Kevin Leago’s July CT scan, his torso looks like it has been riddled with birdshot. Dark splotches speckle his liver, his pancreas, his spine, marking where his neuroendocrine cancer has spread. The pain in his bones has left the 38-year-old Houston Fire Department senior captain unable to work since the end of May. Within 30 days, he will exhaust all his sick and vacation time, leaving him with no income. His doctors say his best shot at survival is a new treatment that is not offered at the hospital covered by Leago’s city health insurance.

Workers compensation benefits would provide Leago a paycheck while he is ill and allow him to transfer to any hospital that accepts him, but the city of Houston denied his claim. The city’s third-party administrator argued Leago’s cancer is unrelated to his 17 years of service in the fire department, despite a Texas law requiring the government to presume that firefighters’ cancers are caused by exposure to carcinogens on the job.

In the past six years, more than nine in 10 Texas firefighters with cancer have had their workers comp claims denied, according to state statistics. Union leaders and state legislators say cities have ignored Texas’ presumptive cancer statute, and face few consequences for denying claims. The result, they say, is that firefighters often see their personal savings evaporate even as they compromise on their care. All seven HFD members with cancer who have filed workers comp claims since 2016 have been denied, according to the firefighter’s union. 

The Texas Legislature in 2005 unanimously passed a change to state law that requires the government to presume, if firefighters are diagnosed with cancer and meet certain criteria, their illness was caused by exposure to carcinogens on the job. The statute shifts the burden from firefighters having to prove their cancer was caused by firefighting to their employers, who must prove it was not. Legislators wrote the law to help doctors, lawyers, insurance providers and union representatives avoid wrangling over individual cases so firefighters can receive benefits quickly.

The state firefighters union and lawmakers say cities have subverted the law by denying workers comp claims from firefighters who qualify. Of 117 workers comp cancer claims filed by firefighters in the state since 2012, 91 percent have been denied, according to the Texas Department of Insurance.

Firefighters are substantially more likely to win benefits on appeal, prevailing in 64 percent of cases over that same period. Yet, less than one-fifth of firefighters disputed their denied claims, daunted by the prospect of spending months or years sparring with insurers in court while simultaneously battling cancer.

A Houston attorney who has represented dozens of firefighters in their appeals, said the workers comp process has become so arduous that firefighters with cancer are unlikely to get a claim approved without an attorney. The lawyer said a 2011 Texas Supreme Court ruling further puts firefighters at a disadvantage. That decision exempted workers comp administrators from bad faith claims. Previously, cities could have been held liable for dismissing a worker’s claim without evidence.

A memo written by the Texas Intergovernmental Risk Pool, which handles workers comp for more than 2,700 Texas municipalities, outlines the strategy firefighters say cities use to dodge the cancer presumptive law. The memo states Texas law presumes only three types of cancer are caused by firefighting: testicular, prostate and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. The risk pool cites a 2007 paper that states dozens of studies have linked firefighting to those three illnesses. Dr. Robert Deuell, a physician and former state senator from Greenville who wrote the presumptive cancer statute, said that interpretation of the law is incorrect.

Firefighter unions say cities are ignoring a wealth of research that links their occupation to other forms of cancer. The presumption statute states it applies to “cancers that may be caused by exposure to heat, smoke, radiation, or a known or suspected carcinogen” as determined by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The IARC’s published research on cancer in the fire service is 559 pages long. It cites scores of academic papers, including a meta-analysis of 32 studies that concluded 12 cancers were possibly or probably caused by firefighting.

Even if firefighters eventually win their workers comp cases on appeal, they risk provoking lawsuits from the cities that employ them. The city of Baytown sued firefighter Patrick Mahoney, who has thyroid cancer, after he won workers compensation benefits on appeal. Mahoney sought workers comp because the city’s insurance plan does not cover cancer treatment.

The city of Houston sued 23-year HFD veteran Margaret Roberts in 2015 after she appealed and won a workers compensation claim for her blood and bone cancer. Roberts died in 2017, but the city’s suit against her estate continues. 

Kevin Leago feels fortunate doctors caught his cancer in the first place. Unlike the Austin, Dallas, San Antonio, and El Paso fire departments, HFD does not send its firefighters for regular physicals, where illnesses can be detected. Leago discovered he was sick after the ambulance he was driving collided with another vehicle in October 2012. Doctors ordered a CT scan to survey his broken back and wrist, and discovered a tumor in his pancreas. He was 32, and his wife, Breck, was 7 months pregnant.

A surgery in 2013 removed his spleen, 22 lymph nodes, and 70 percent of his pancreas, and the cancer vanished for nearly five years. It returned in the fall of 2017, and he went under the knife again. When Leago fell ill after extinguishing a routine fire in May, a CT scan revealed the cancer had spread throughout his body. The fentanyl patches he wears soothe the aching in his bones, but are so strong he cannot work or drive. 

Leago does not smoke and is physically fit, and believes the most likely explanation for his cancer is exposure to carcinogens — including benzene, formaldehyde, and asbestos — his body regularly absorbed on fire calls. He cannot pinpoint a blaze that was particularly hazardous, and researchers have been unable to conclusively link pancreatic cancer to firefighting.

The Kelsey-Seybold Clinic, where Leago receives chemotherapy, does not offer PRRT. MD Anderson Cancer Center 2,000 yards east on Holcombe Boulevard does perform the treatment.

Leago finds purpose in his fight for benefits. Though his treatments leave him fatigued and nauseous, he still finds time to consult with his attorney and the firefighters union about his worker’s comp appeal strategy. By having his denial overturned in court, he hopes to create a path for other firefighters to follow with their own claims.

“I want people to be able to take my experience, and use that, and do them some good in the future,” he said.

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Cancer in the fire service

Excerpts from the

The International Association of Fire Chiefs’ (IAFC) Volunteer and Combination Officers Section (VCOS) and the National Volunteer Fire Council (NVFC) have partnered to develop and release the Lavender Ribbon Report: Best Practices for Preventing Firefighter Cancer. This report provides 11 actions that can be taken to mitigate the risk of cancer for firefighters.

Unfortunately, the topic of firefighter cancer has had a significantly increasing impact on firefighter health and welfare. Great strides have been made by departments and responders everywhere in combating and preventing cancer, but more still needs to be done. The time is NOW to make changes.

It is imperative that local leaders take this report to heart and spend the time and energy to make changes to improve the safety and health of firefighters. Too often, we hear about firefighters suffering from and dying of cancer. What if things had been differently and personal protective equipment (PPE) was washed thoroughly and stored it in a better way? There are many relatively cost-effective actions that can be taken to reduce the risk.

This report, released at Fire-Rescue International in Dallas, Texas, is dedicated to those that are battling or have lost their battle with cancer. 

For additional cancer resources, go to

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Cancer in the fire service

Excerpts from

According to the Asheville Fire Department, for the second time in North Carolina history, a firefighter death caused by cancer is being determined by the Industrial Commission as a line of duty death. Asheville fire engineer Will Willis passed away after his battle with cancer earlier this year.

The fire department says this decision means his family will receive a survivor’s benefit. It will also give Willis’ children free college education at public North Carolina universities. Additionally, the decision means Willis’ name will be added to the state memorial in Raleigh. That ceremony should happen sometime in May.

Fire Chief Scott Burnette said the decision by the Industrial Commission was practically unheard of until now. He said the decision is important, not only for the Willis family, but also for the department.

This year, the Asheville City Council approved funds for a second set of turnout gear for Asheville firefighters. The department also has started new decontamination processes. They say the Industrial Commissions’ decision is an important part of recognizing what is happening.

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A request for assistance …


I am writing this letter to find out whether anyone from your fire department was there after 9/11/2001 disaster.

I arrived at the trade center on 9/14/2001 and I worked with the Chicago Fire Department. I believe we were by the Verizon building; to the left of the Command Center. I showed up with two spackle buckets filled with fishing spikes I believe it was your captain who examined the spikes and said “What the hell are those”? I replied, I fish on steel pipes and I don’t slip.

His response was, “Can I walk up the side of F’n building with them”?.
I told him, “That probably would be a bad idea”. “He chuckled a little bit and said, “Strap me up”. So, I did. He went on one of his many rescue trips and when he returned he said, “Where the hell have you been”? Strap up my whole team up. That’s how it started.

I don’t remember how many days and nights you guys were there before I arrived. You guys appeared exhausted as hell, but you all just kept going and going. You men were like machines. I could not believe how hard you all were working. My role in this was very small. I would tighten the boots up after each of your rescue missions as there were many.

After you men returned from one of these missions we were all sitting under a concrete overhand. I asked, “What more can I do”?
One of your men said, “Look at the bac-ho on the street dumping debris”.
You replied, “Listen up when you go down to where the FBI is going to ask you to look for certain papers”. You replied, “F them”.
You need to look for any kind of red hose or Brass, we need to track our boys.

I am pretty sure you guys were not too fond of the FBI. When I got to the street, the FBI asked me, “If I was a fireman”. I replied, no.
I’m just a civilian helping out. They threw me down to the ground, face first and told me, “This is a restricted area”. They put me in hand cuffs. I had two FBI guys one on my left and one on the right.

By the time I got to my feet I turned around and all you guys came charging down
the two FBI guys on my right and left had their faces in the mud like really quick. They had no idea what hit them. You said this to the FBI un cuff him he is with us.

The FBI and police stood on one side of the street Firemen on the other side. We never talked much at all so many people died. I’m sorry for all your brothers’ you guys lost. I can’t explain the feeling I felt when you guys stood up for me. Thank You I believe you guys left on Saturday 9/15 I worked with some other carpenters building some ramps and doing whatever I could to help after you guys left

I was by the exit and they were letting us go in groups. They were prepping us on how the media is going to be all over us. I stayed and spoke to the guy in charge.
Allot of People died here, the little work I did in comparison to you guys was nothing. There is no way in hell I want see the media never mind speak to them. So, he took me out a back way.

Now for the hard part. To ask for anything on a day when so many people died. I really feel like shit. I have been battling cancer for the last year. I had three major operations. I have not worked in over a year I just finished my chemo treatments. I owe quite a bit of money for medical bills. Pretty soon I get a cat scan to see if the chemo worked. I have no feeling in my hands or feet. I have two beautiful girls
That I support

I am a carpenter by trade I have trouble buttoning my shirt never mind picking up a nail. The doctors told me the nerves in my hand and feet may grow back and may not. I heard a add on the radio and realized I may qualify. I called and spoke to an attorney they told me I qualify for the world trade center Victim Compensation Fund. They told me if can prove I was there on 9/14 for four hours You guys are the only ones that can do this. The story above may not be perfect, my memory sucks but I tried to include enough information, so you would remember who I was. You may even have some of the spiked shoes in your basement. I know I was with you guys on the 9/14 for allot more than 4 hours. I just need a letter.

I have no idea where you guys are I am sending this out randomly if this is not the correct Fire department. Please let me know!! if you could kindly pass this on to any of your Brothers from the Chicago Fire Department that where at the trade center on 9/14 I would truly appreciate that

Thank You

Robert Duphiney
100 Seward ST apt B-12
Rockaway NJ 07866

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Cancer in the Fire Service

Excerpts from the

Flanked by firefighters and their families, Massachusetts Governor Charlie Baker formally signed legislation that will designate cancer as a work-related injury for firefighters across Massachusetts. The new law will cover all medical treatments for firefighters diagnosed with cancer as well as their time missed because of the illness.

Before the legislation, firefighters diagnosed with cancer were forced to use sick days and personal days while taking time off for treatment, general secretary-treasurer of the International Association of Fire Fighters Edward Kelly said.

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Cancer in the fire service

Excerpts from

President Donald Trump on Monday signed legislation to set up a national registry for firefighters to help track links between exposure to fumes and cancer. The Firefighter Cancer Registry Act requires the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to set up a database in order to study possible links between cancer and the fumes and toxins firefighters are exposed to. The idea is use the information to develop better equipment and other techniques to protect firefighters from cancer-causing chemicals.

The lawmakers cited a 2015 study by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health that found that a greater incidence of certain cancers among firefighters compared with the general population.

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Cancer in the fire service

Excerpts from

Portsmouth (NH) Fire Lt. Russ Osgood was next to Firefighter Sarah Fox the day she died from cancer at Concord Hospital when he learned another fire brother, Jeff Bokum, had the disease as well.

The toll Osgood faced in that moment at the hospital was emotional, but a financial one came shortly after. Osgood and firefighters worked to raise thousands of dollars for Bokum’s out-of-pocket costs during his six-month battle as they had for Fox in the months before her death, cancer benefits not yet covered for fighters.

Tuesday will bring the passage of a law funding cancer treatment benefits Bokum and Fox went without before they died within a five-month span. 

The bill will allow firefighter cancer treatment benefits to be funded through worker’s compensation as no funding mechanism was previously established by the Legislature. It’s passage will come 28 years after a law establishing a presumptive cancer law for firefighters was ruled unconstitutional because it lacked a funding mechanism, leaving firefighters with cancer to pay many costs out of pocket.

Firefighters had previously advocated for funding in Concord for years without success. The signing of the bill is meaningful not only to Portsmouth firefighters but to firefighters across the state.

Both the Bokum and Fox families struggled with finances as they worked to pay for treatment. Bokum went to MD Anderson Center in Houston, Texas, where he paid for for expensive treatment not covered by insurance on top of the cost of living in his temporary home.

Fox was raising three children, including two young twins, and was unable to contribute to her family’s business, which strapped the family. She also used all of her vacation time to deal with her treatment, and when she ran out, firefighters worked to swap shifts to help her. The creation of a leave bank for firefighters to donate leave time for other employees to use was also inspired by Fox.

Firefighters raised more than $100,000 over the course of a year and a half for Bokum and Fox. About 500 motorcyclists raised $25,000 in 2010 for the first annual Sarah’s Ride, which continues to this day. Donations big and small were received, from the large amount coming from Globe Manufacturing to $5 donations from lemonade stands run by kids.

Firefighters were well aware other states offered cancer benefits to firefighters and were frustrated that so much work was needed to pay for illness deemed work-related under law. 

While losing Fox and Bokum was devastating for their fellow firefighters, their stories created awareness of firefighter cancer at a time when fewer people knew of their heightened risk. Firefighters have a 9 percent higher risk of being diagnosed with cancer and 14 percent higher risk of dying from cancer than the general U.S. population, according to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.

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